Browse code

Week 6: (END) ISS In My Own Words. Signed-off-by: Tj H <Tj.Physicist@gmail.com>

new file: 1125/docs/iss131r/imow5.pdf
new file: 1125/docs/iss131r/imow5.tex

Tj H authored on 10/Jun/2012 15:15
Showing 2 changed files
1 1
new file mode 100644
2 2
Binary files /dev/null and b/1125/docs/iss131r/imow5.pdf differ
3 3
new file mode 100644
... ...
@@ -0,0 +1,154 @@
0
+\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
1
+
2
+\usepackage{babel}
3
+\usepackage{times}
4
+\usepackage{pifont}
5
+\usepackage{moreverb}
6
+\usepackage{alltt}
7
+\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
8
+
9
+
10
+\begin{document}
11
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
12
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
13
+
14
+\title{IMOW 5: Fascism}
15
+\maketitle
16
+
17
+\begin{itemize}
18
+  \it Eugenics: Canadians had the eugenics programme the longest among any 
19
+  developed country. 
20
+  \subitem Role of eugenics in the idea of the Aryan race and hitler's ideas 
21
+  of it etc.  
22
+  \it \textbf{Fascism: }Radical, Authoritarian, Nationalist ideology.  
23
+  \subitem Fascists argue that the state is an organic, united community that 
24
+  requires strong and total leadership and needs singular, collective identity.  
25
+  \subitem This is the first group we have studied that talks about War in a 
26
+  positive manner, the fascists say that War plays a role in building and 
27
+  keeping national spirit and vitality. Military should rule, and the leader 
28
+  should be chose from the military via merit.  
29
+  \subitem Nationalism is very important to Fascism, and a UNITED nationalism, 
30
+  they would be against multi-cultural ism etc. 
31
+  \it Fascists root themselves in maintaining tradition, in that way they are 
32
+  similar to conservatism.  
33
+  \subitem Once they are in power, social change is a big no-no, while the 
34
+  rise to power is very bloody, and full of revolution.  
35
+  \it Economically, they are seen as a third option, a hybrid system where corporates exist 
36
+  and work with labour but work are controlled by the state. A midway between 
37
+  capitalism and Marxism. 
38
+  \it Rooted in national, political and economic autonomy. Fascists seek to be 
39
+  completely independent and autonomous in economic and national decisions. 
40
+  They want to close the borders, economic independence is paramount to being 
41
+  fully autonomous.   
42
+  \it They usually have a movement and a mass mobilisation of the youth (indoctrination through the youth).
43
+  \it While Marx talked about the influence of the socio-economy on the 
44
+  institutions, fascists on the other hand USE these institutions to make 
45
+  changes to the socio-economic structures
46
+  \it Fascism is on the rise today, due to the emerging global economic 
47
+  issues, and the rise of globalisation and multi-culturalism
48
+  etc, also in the developed countries (usually anti-immigration).  
49
+  \subitem This works very well, due to the charismatic leader.  
50
+\end{itemize}
51
+
52
+\section{Mussolini}
53
+\begin{itemize}
54
+  \it Both him and Hitler were raised as socialists, and earlier were 
55
+  socialists, but rejected it due to Marxists ideas of equality, that was part 
56
+  of the socialist movement.  
57
+  \subitem Shifts thinking from Class Conflict thinking, to National Conflict 
58
+  thinking. War can solidify National identity.  
59
+  \it Both him and Hitler rose to power in a very similar fashion (did the 
60
+  same things).
61
+  \subitem Started off, creating public works, combated economic recessions 
62
+  etc. These are services that were built to give the young unemployed people 
63
+  jobs; the idea is to MAKE the country self-sufficient. 
64
+  \subitem This also showed him as a nice person, who is all for `nation 
65
+  building' etc.  
66
+  \it He asked everyone to give up their gold, so as to get out of the 
67
+  economic slump, TOGETHER, this is all tied to the idea of ``nation building''.
68
+  \it Most important thing here, to remember as a reason to a lot of what was 
69
+  done early on (see slide) is the idea of nation building, national pride and 
70
+  trying to keep everything autonomous as a nation and within the country. 
71
+  \it Autarky: Self Sufficient, independent country. 
72
+  \it Mussolini was less concerned about race, and was actively pursuing 
73
+  colonisation, anyone could be Italian (Nation vs State, nation=one culture, 
74
+  one tradition, state is more multi-cultural). Hitler wanted to build the 
75
+  nation of Germany, while Mussolini wanted to expand the state.  
76
+  \subitem Hitler and Mussolini had a fall out due to this.
77
+  \it Mussolini did the othering in terms of `other states' while Hitler did 
78
+  it in terms of `other people'/`other nations' (like Jews etc).
79
+\end{itemize}
80
+
81
+\section{Hitler}
82
+\begin{itemize}
83
+  \it Introduced to Anti-Semitism in his early 20s. Much of this influence 
84
+  came from Martin Luther remarks about Jewish peoples.  
85
+  \subitem He did not start out hating Jews, that came slowly.  
86
+  \it He started out going to the Nazi party meetings as originally a police 
87
+  spy, but liked what they were saying. 
88
+  \it Unlike Mussolini, Hitler was democratically elected in, in a series of 
89
+  elections (but only won by a vote of 37percent of votes).
90
+  \it Post-WWI as post-war, and the economic issues of post-war.  
91
+  \subitem anti-Semitism was already there, but Hitler just tapped into this 
92
+  already existing sentiment. 
93
+  \subitem what do you do with the soldiers who are coming home after the war?
94
+  \it ``The construction of the other'': Giving a group of people the 
95
+  qualities of the ``other'' so as to portray them as `not you' and able to do 
96
+  horrible things to them.
97
+  \subitem De-Humanise them, this is something Hitler did.  
98
+  \it Like Mussolini, he created working programmes for the unemployed youth, 
99
+  so as to indoctrinate the youth.  
100
+  \it He also paid women to stay and home and have kids, for various reasons 
101
+  such as freeing up labour force, indoctrination via the family etc. (note: 
102
+  only women of the right `race').
103
+  \subitem c.f: Eugenics. 
104
+  \subitem Movie: Meeting of the Nazi leadership to decide the `final 
105
+  solution', they DID NOT start out saying that we should just kill them. 
106
+  \it The Eugenics Movement: Part of the construction of the other. 
107
+  \subitem Eugenics Means \emph{Well Born}. Created as a part of Social Darwinism.   
108
+  \subitem Both Positive (encouraging only certain people TO have children, 
109
+  eg: Hitler giving money to certain women to have kids) and Negative Eugenics (Limiting certain groups from 
110
+  having children).
111
+  \subitem In Canada we had both, and Hitler used both as well. In Canada we 
112
+  concentrated the eugenics programme on the mentally ill etc, but this 
113
+  crossed into racism as well.  
114
+  \subitem After WWII and where we saw the eugenics programme lead (ie: 
115
+  Hitlers eugenics programme), most countries stopped the eugenics programme, 
116
+  except for Canada which continued well into the 50s.  
117
+  \it Hitler's eugenics programme, although concentrated on the Jewish 
118
+  peoples, a lot of other peoples died as well, anyone who was NOT seen as the 
119
+  Aryan.  
120
+  \subitem The racism here, was important and was very necessary for the 
121
+  `construction of the other'.
122
+\end{itemize}
123
+
124
+\section{Fascism}
125
+\begin{itemize}
126
+  \it Against both CL and Marxism, as Fascism rejects notions of perpetual 
127
+  peace, democracy, ideas of rational humans (part of CL), and ideas of 
128
+  tolerance and equality were rejected in Fascism.   
129
+  \it Rejected Marxism: There is no class war (part of the notion of national 
130
+  solidarity), dictatorship of a LEADER and not the proletariat/intelligentia. 
131
+  \it Unlike Marx, religion (although an issue in some ways to Hitler as well 
132
+  as Mussolini) they used the mythology of religion to lead an irrational 
133
+  peoples.  
134
+  \it Nation-State: Nation and State are intertwined to Fascists.  
135
+  \subitem Some Fascists will accept colonies others will not (Hitler would 
136
+  not want everyone to become German but Mussolini would want everyone to 
137
+  become Italian under him).
138
+  \subitem Eugenics used to build the nation and control the population of the 
139
+  state.  
140
+  \it Racism: Hitler for instance created scientific research to justify and 
141
+  solidify existing ideas of Racial and Gender separation. Racism exists, and 
142
+  ideas of scientific racial differences etc, come about as a result of these 
143
+  \it Autarky: Is it possible in a modern globalised era?
144
+  \it Unlike Marx, fascists saw the complex relationships between Institutions 
145
+  and Economy (Marx's ideas of Economic Determinism), and Fascism challenged 
146
+  Marxists notions of the power of religion etc.  
147
+  \it Does Fascism imply cruelty, at least any more than the interpretations 
148
+  of other models?
149
+  \it What happens if the leader dies in Fascism? Autarky as difficult to 
150
+  sustain.  
151
+\end{itemize}
152
+
153
+\end{document}